Citations on some thinkers
Hippocrates (Greek, about de 460-370 aC.), who is considered the father of medicine, defined health as personal internal harmony, as well as harmony between the person and the environment. To be healthy, the person needs to have conscience about their conflicting attitude, and live according to the laws of nature. It was practically the same idea that François Voltaire (french, 1694-1778) had 2000 years later: “The art of medicine is calming the patient down so that nature can cure the illness”. That is also a principle of Integral Psychoanalysis, which talks about an internal pharmacy that works through getting conscience about your own negative attitudes of denying and not wanting to see reality.
Socrates (Greek, about de 470-399 aC.) thought that truth was inside the human being. The philosopher’s job is similar to the one of an obstetrician; it’s to help knowledge (consciousness) be born through a dialectic process of questioning. You have to know yourself to have balance and physical health.
Plato (Greek, about de 428-348 aC.) wrote that we cannot believe in our senses, but we can trust the reasoning we have inside us, since it is the same in every human being. He said people have contact with universal truth through ethics.
Aristotle (Greek, 384-322 aC.) said that God is pure action. In other words, an infinitely intense action in the direction of goodness, truth, and beauty (perfect creation). Christianity says human beings were created similar to God. Keppe unites these two concepts, saying that the essence of human beings is pure action, but it is affected by human pathology. Therefore, if people act in a pure way, they’re themselves, just like when they were born.
Saint Augustine (Império Romano, 354-430) said that evil is the absence of God. Evil does not exist on its own. St. Thomas Aquinas (italian, about de 1225-1274) tried to unite Aristotle’s philosophy with Christianity. He had the same thoughts about ethics as Aristotle: the perception and observation of truth is a state of perfect happiness. He defended that God is infinite, perfect (goodness), invisible, and incomprehensible, which is why we can only analogize about Him. He said that psychological pathology comes from capital sins: pride, greed, envy, wrath, sloth, gluttony, and lust, and sadness as a way of life can be added to the list as well. The causes of bad habits (vice) are: ignorance, passions, malice, and the devil that acts through suggestions (energetic).
Soren Kierkegaard (Danish, 1813-1855), like Karl Jaspers (German, 1883-1969) , taught that human existence is something that surpasses the concrete dimension, which is the limited one where we live. The relationship people have with themselves I based on their relationship with the transcendental. But Keppe thinks different from Sartre, another famous existentialist, that said that human beings create themselves by the choices made, as if existence were the origin for essence. Existentialism holds that we have free will, which makes us responsible for our choices and we feel their consequences. Ethics, which is consciousness, exists, and it helps people realize their bad choices and evil intentions. All our choices are based on metaphysics really (outside of physical existence, like life after death).
May be Fyodor Dostoievski (Rússian, 1821-1881) was the one who described the human soul most profoundly. People’s actions are way more complicated and complex than our understanding of them. Human beings can hold in their soul the most beautiful ideals, and the most perverted intetions - at the same time. Or like Blaise Pascal said: “The heart has its reasons that reasoning can never understand”. Dostoevski thought that without pure feeling (love), consciousness isn’t complete. It is possible to have a lot of knowledge without knowing it intellectually, just by feeling. Truth does not come from the outside, it comes from within. If you are able to control you desires, you are freer than you think. It is necessary to love everything to see God’s secret in everything.
Logotherapy (or existential analysis) holds responsibility important. This is Viktor Frankl’s (Austrian, 1905-1997), idea. Existence is existence with responsibility. Logotherapy is based on the spiritual dimension, on metaphysics. Human beings are physical-psychic-spiritual entities.
Consciousness (ethics) is a phenomenon that transcends the existence of human beings, and that is why it can only be understood through a transcendental perspective. Therefore, my consciousness is something more than my person, a channel connecting to something greater. And human beings can hear this voice - the voice of the transcendental.
Maria von Ebner-Eschenbach said: “Be the lord of your desires, and the slave of your consciousness”. As the lord of my desires, I am a creator - as the slave of my consciousness, I am created.
In reality, our essence always exceeds us, and is directed towards a purpose. They talk about “desire of purpose” is Logotherapy. In other words, faith as a purpose has a transcendental dimension. Religious faith is the maximum purpose in the end. We are not going towards a universal religion, but to a person one, where each one of us uses whatever language or way of speaking that we want to communicate with God. There are many different languages in the world, and no one can say that their own language is superior to all others. In the same way, we can find God - the only God - by any means or ways that the various religions offer. The more complete the purpose is, the harder it is to understand it. Unlimited purpose is absolutely impossible to be understood by limited beings. Here ends knowledge, and wisdom takes place; the wisdom of our hearts. Every situation in life is a call that should be listened to, and followed. Even in a hopeless situation, when the person feels powerless, it is possible to find a purpose. The main issue here is how (with what attitude) you are going to meet this purpose. A small fire is extinguished with strong winds, while a big fire only strengthens with the wind. With faith it is the same; weak faith gets weaker with difficulties and catastrophes, while strong faith is strengthened by them.
Is a less philosophical context, but practically still very importan, the Superior Nursing School in Hallanda, Sweden, expresses their basic concept in one of their flyers: Human beings, by nature, are good, true, and creative. Our essence is healthy, even though existence is more or less sick.